FRS 301: Introduction to Forensic Serology


Learning Outcomes
Students who took the course are expected to be able to:
1. describe blood, blood components and their uses;
2. explain how to identify bloodstains by microscopic methods;
3. analyze blood by catalytic, crystal, spectrophotometric, chromatographic and immunological methods;
4. demonstrate knowledge and understanding of composition and forensic uses of body fluid such as semen, saliva, urine, sweat and vaginal secretion;
5. examine and interpret bloodstains on objects such as clothing, furniture and footwear;
6. document, photograph and interpret bloodstain patterns.

Course Contents
Blood: The nature of blood, blood components and their functions, identification of bloodstains by microscopic methods. Tests used in blood analysis: catalytic and crystal tests. ABO, Rh and MN systems. Use of spectrophotometric, chromatographic and immunological methods in blood analysis. Determination of species of origin, Ring test, single diffusion, double diffusion, crossed- over electrophoresis. Grouping of blood stains: techniques for the determination of blood groups from bloodstains. Composition and examination of biological fluids such as saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, urine and sweat. Protection, packaging & transportation of biological evidences. Bloodstain pattern interpretation: Properties of human blood, target surface considerations, size, shape and directionality of bloodstains, spattered blood, other bloodstain patterns, interpretation of bloodstain on clothing and footwear. Documentation and photography for bloodstain pattern analysis. Preservation of blood evidence; procedures and precautions